History of Technology Heroes and Villains – A little light reading Here you will find a brief history of technology. Initially inspired by the development of batteries, it covers technology in general and includes some interesting little known, or long forgotten, facts as well as a few myths about the development of technology, the science behind it, the context in which it occurred and the deeds of the many personalities, eccentrics and charlatans involved. You may find the Search Engine , the Technology Timeline or the Hall of Fame quicker if you are looking for something or somebody in particular. Scroll down and see what treasures you can discover. Background We think of a battery today as a source of portable power, but it is no exaggeration to say that the battery is one of the most important inventions in the history of mankind. Volta’s pile was at first a technical curiosity but this new electrochemical phenomenon very quickly opened the door to new branches of both physics and chemistry and a myriad of discoveries, inventions and applications. The electronics, computers and communications industries, power engineering and much of the chemical industry of today were founded on discoveries made possible by the battery.

First Trimester Scans

When will I have my first scan? Share Becky Rutherford Midwife sonographer If your pregnancy is going well, your first ultrasound scan will be your dating scan, between 10 weeks and 14 weeks of pregnancy. Early scan An early scan is offered from six weeks, so before your dating scan. Your midwife or GP will only recommend an early scan if there’s a concern, for example, if you’ve had bleeding in this pregnancy.

Your GP may also refer you for a scan if you’ve had a previous miscarriage. Many hospitals have early pregnancy assessment units EPAUs that run daily.

Question: My wife is 9 weeks pregnant with twins, she has on and off bleeding and spotting for the past 3 weeks. She already had 3 ultrasound scans, all of which showed two fetal heartbeats. we are concerned (because of the spotting and bleeding) which leads me to ask two 2 questions.

Subscribe To Our Newsletter! Let’s try your email address again! The ship is assumed to be Roman and, when it sank just off the coast of the island in the middle of the 1st century BCE, carried a huge number of artifacts dating back to as early as the 4th century BCE. In , Greek sponge divers found the shipwreck, which was submerged nearly feet, while wearing gear that was standard for the early 20th century—canvas suits and copper helmets. Although that diver was actually fine, later exploration in the summer of caused the death of one diver and the paralysis of two more from decompression sickness or “the bends.

More recent research, though, suggests that the ship may have been en route to Rome from Turkey.

10 weeks pregnant – all you need to know

Your blood needs to be taken either by us at the time of your appointment or privately by your midwife, GP or local phlebotomist. When you book online, depending on your chosen location you may be contacted to arrange the most convenient way for you to have this done close by. Note that the results from your baby’s DNA blood test are normally available approximately 7 working days after your appointment and we recommend that you present your results to your usual healthcare professional whose contact details we take at the time of booking.

Your choice of a free rescan may be appropriate if we are unable to perform the primary purpose of this scan.

Signs and symptoms at 4 weeks pregnant. Implantation bleeding. If around the 4 week mark of your pregnancy you notice a little bleeding, or a pink or brownish discharge, chances are it is implantation bleeding this occurs when a fertilised egg attaches itself to the lining of .

It is usually part of an assessment called combined first trimester screening. Combined first trimester screening Combined first trimester screening assesses the risk for your baby having certain chromosomal abnormalities trisomy 13, 18 and This testing combines the nuchal translucency ultrasound with specific blood tests. Nuchal translucency ultrasound alone can also provide this risk assessment, but it is not as accurate as combined first trimester screening. Combined first trimester screening is a non-invasive way of assessing your risk, which means it does not involve putting needles into the placenta or amniotic sac, as happens with CVS and amniocentesis.

This means that combined first trimester screening simply tells us if your risk is low or high. For example, it tells us whether your baby has a low risk of having trisomy 13, 18 or 21, or whether your baby has a high risk of having trisomy 13, 18 or This test gives us an indication of whether we should worry about your baby based on these results.

This means that combined first trimester screening will not give us a definitive answer. Chorionic villus sampling and amniocentesis are invasive tests, involving putting needles into the placenta or amniotic sac, and they are associated with an increased risk of miscarriage. For more information of prenatal diagnostic testing, please go to:

Development Scans

Breast tenderness is common during the first trimester, and is more common in women who are pregnant at a young age. Sometimes, timing may also use the fertilization age which is the age of the embryo. Start of gestational age According to American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists , the main methods to calculate gestational age are: Early obstetric ultrasound , comparing the size of an embryo or fetus to that of a reference group of pregnancies of known gestational age such as calculated from last menstrual periods , and using the mean gestational age of other embryos or fetuses of the same size.

If the gestational age as calculated from an early ultrasound is contradictory to the one calculated directly from the last menstrual period, it is still the one from the early ultrasound that is used for the rest of the pregnancy. Estimated date of confinement Due date estimation basically follows two steps:

Heroes and Villains – A little light reading. Here you will find a brief history of technology. Initially inspired by the development of batteries, it covers technology in general and includes some interesting little known, or long forgotten, facts as well as a few myths about the development of technology, the science behind it, the context in which it occurred and the deeds of the many.

A head circumference measurement is undertaken to confirm gestational age and your baby must measure 16 weeks by our system to allow us to determine the gender of your baby. Gender Scan Media Extras When the primary purpose of your scan is completed, here are some popular recording media extras our Gender scan clients take home with them: If you are less than 20 weeks, we recommend that you drink some water or other clear fluids and do not empty your bladder prior to your appointment.

Guide to number of guests Most clinics can comfortably accommodate 5 guests including children for this scan. If you would like to bring more, please contact your chosen clinic when booking to check how many we can accommodate. Frequently Asked Questions What is the difference between diagnostic and non-diagnostic scans? Any pregnancy scans referred to as “non-diagnostic” should be avoided. It implies that the diagnostic ultrasound equipment is not being used in accordance with manufacturer’s guidelines, that the person operating it may not be a health care professional or following their duty of care requirements i.

All of our pregnancy scans include a minimum of a well-being check, are carried out by health care professionals who will act upon their duty of care with incidental findings and who can write clinical reports. Our ultrasound systems are sourced through official channels and are set-up and operated to the manufacturer’s guidelines. What if my scan shows something is wrong or I need help after my appointment? Very rarely, there may be a problem that is totally unexpected and we are the bearers of bad news.

Window to the Womb

Under a Creative Commons license open access Background Identification of preterm births and accurate estimates of gestational age for newborn infants is vital to guide care. Unfortunately, in developing countries, it can be challenging to obtain estimates of gestational age. Routinely collected newborn infant screening metabolic analytes vary by gestational age and may be useful to estimate gestational age.

Objective We sought to develop an algorithm that could estimate gestational age at birth that is based on the analytes that are obtained from newborn infant screening. Study Design We conducted a population-based cross-sectional study of all live births in the province of Ontario that included , infants who were born between April and March and who underwent newborn infant screening. We used multivariable linear and logistic regression analyses to build a model to predict gestational age using newborn infant screening metabolite measurements and readily available physical characteristics data birthweight and sex.

In my article on why guys suddenly lose interest, I discussed how caring too much or stressing over your relationship can irreparably damage article sparked an avalanche of e-mails and comments from women who were feeling panicked over the state of their relationship.

The first trimester is months one, two, and three of your pregnancy. Below are scan pictures taken during the early weeks of pregnancy. Measurements taken at these early scans will help to; confirm a pregnancy, date the pregnancy and to see any problems that may occur in the pregnancy low lying placenta, twins etc. Scans in early pregnancy are usually performed in the first trimester around 12 weeks.

You may have a earlier scan, if you are experiencing pain or bleeding for example or unsure of LMP dates. Transabdominal ultrasound TAU and also the transvaginal ultrasound TVU are valuable diagnostic tools in obstetrics and gynecology.

First Trimester Scans

Can the scan show the gender of my baby? What is actually done? Scans are usually performed by a doctors, midwives or radiographers who are specially trained in ultrasound, and are known as sonographers. The whole pregnancy will be assessed. The amount of liquor amniotic fluid , the position and appearance of the placenta and a detailed scan of the baby itself.

The development of a baby is quite an intricate process. From the moment the egg and sperm meet, your baby is beginning to grow. This early part of development lays the foundation for .

You may like to take a look at charts for crown-rump length , biparietal diameter , femur length , abdominal circumference , gestational sac diameter , yolk sac diameter and intrauterine fetal weight. If you have problems understanding and calculating your due date, check out and download a copy of the Ob calculator by York Winston. Hutchon’s site and the Gestation Network also provide pregnancy calculators.

A large number of mails I received are about fetal anomalies, I have therefore tried to put together a Catalogue of Web pages which describe in some detail specific congenital anomalies that are diagnosable by ultrasound. You can visit the page here. I am pregnant for 7 weeks. I went for a scan yesterday and was told I should have a full bladder. They made me drink 4 cups of water and my bladder was almost bursting at the end of the session.

Concerns Regarding Early Fetal Development

Each of our early pregnancy scans come complete with a medical report. If you feel weekly scans will offer more reassurance during the early weeks of pregnancy then these can be arranged in addition to this package. The primary purpose of this scan is to confirm viability of an intrauterine pregnancy and determine well-being. The scans will last about 10 minutes and a 2D scan picture will be given to you to take home and keep.

At 8 to 14 weeks of pregnancy, usually around 12 weeks, you should be offered a pregnancy dating scan. It will let you know a more reliable due date and check how your baby is developing.

Advertisement You at 4 weeks pregnant You might feel some pregnancy symptoms at four weeks, but there is every chance you will put them down to your period being about to arrive. Your boobs might have that ‘time of the month’ feeling, and you might even have some spotting or light bleeding. If you have taken a positive pregnancy test, you will need to follow it up with a visit to your GP as early as possible to get your booking appointment made with the midwife. They will then book you in for your booking appointment with your midwife which is usually around 10 weeks.

Things are getting real now! Once you know you are pregnant, if you are a smoker you will probably be keen to ditch the cigarettes to protect your growing baby not to mention your own health. You can also work out an approximate due date using our pregnancy due date calculator. Due date is calculated by counting from the first day of your last period As soon as you’re are pregnant, your blood flow around your body increases Just days after conception, your breasts are already preparing for milk production What to think about at 4 weeks pregnant If you are not registered with a GP or dentist in your area, now’s the time to get this sorted.

Dental care is free when you are pregnant and remains so for 12 months after your baby is born, you’re entitled to free NHS dental treatment if you’re pregnant when you start your treatment. To get free NHS dental treatment, you must have: Implantation bleeding is something that can occur in the very early days and weeks of pregnancy. In fact, around one in every three of women can experience implantation bleeding in the early stages of pregnancy, read more in signs and symptoms below.

It can be confused with having a period or a miscarriage can lead some women to believe they are not actually pregnant or have lost their baby. When should I take a pregnancy test?

One more step

First trimester ultrasound is performed in the first months of a pregnancy. Pregnancy ultrasounds are performed mainly using transabdominal ultrasound. For many women, especially after 8 weeks gestation, sufficient information about the baby may be obtained with transabdominal ultrasound only. However, in the early pregnancy, the developing embryo is very small at 6 weeks gestation, the baby is only mm long and a transvaginal ultrasound may be required to get a better image of the baby.

Transvaginal ultrasound is safe and commonly performed during all stages of pregnancy, including the first trimester.

The gestational sac is the first identifiable structure routinely imaged in the first trimester. It is identified by transabdominal ultrasound as early as 5 weeks’ gestation and may be seen as early as 4 weeks’ gestation by transvaginal ultrasound. 15, 16, 47 The gestational sac is an echo-free space containing the fluid, embryo, and extraembryonic structures.

What will you do with your scan photos? When will I have my dating scan? You’ll have a dating scan, also known as a week scan between about 10 weeks and 14 weeks of pregnancy. You’ll only have a scan before this, between six weeks and 10 weeks, if you’ve experienced bleeding , pain, or problems in a previous pregnancy Miscarriage Association nd. You’ll also be able to have an earlier scan if you’ve had recurrent miscarriages NICE How accurate are dating scans?

A dating scan is the best way to predict your due date PHE The point of the scan is to work out how many weeks pregnant you are. You may have calculated the length of your pregnancy from the first day of your last menstrual period LMP. However, conception doesn’t actually occur until around 14 days after your LMP, or later if your cycle is longer than 28 days Mongelli

My baby is measuring 2 weeks ahead. Does this mean I will deliver early?